Art. 96 CISG

A Contracting State whose legislation requires contracts of sale to be concluded in or evidenced by writing may at any time make a declaration in accordance with article 12 that any provision of article 11, article 29, or Part II of this Convention, that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance, or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in writing, does not apply where any party has his place of business in that State.



CISG Contracting States that have made an Art. 96 CISG reservation:

  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Belarus
  • Chile
  • Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (North Korea)
  • Paraguay
  • Russian Federation
  • Ukraine
  • Vietnam

CISG Contracting States that had made an Art. 96 CISG reservation, but have since withdrawn the reservation:

  • China (reservation in effect between 1 January 1988 and 31 July 2013)
  • Estonia (reservation in effect between 1 October 1994 and 30 September 2004)
  • Hungary (reservation in effect between 1 January 1988 and 31 January 2016)
  • Latvia (reservation in effect between 1 August 1998 and 31 May 2013)
  • Lithuania (reservation in effect between 1 February 1996 and 31 May 2014)


CISG-AC Opinion regarding Art. 96 CISG

Overview of case law on Art. 96 CISG: UNCITRAL Digest

The UNCITRAL Digest on the CISG can be used as a starting point to discover the relevant case law on this article.