Burden of proof under the CISG

Whether and to which extent the CISG governs the burden of proof is subject to debate:

  • Applying national law to allocate the burden of proof
Czech Republic
Czech floor materials case
Sąd Apelacyjny w Katowicach (Court of Appeal Katowice)
Poland, 18 January 2017 – ACa 344/16, CISG-online 5049

Applied national law to allocate the burden of proof under Art. 6 CISG

Czech Republic
Lindner AG v. Orientador Alfadengário Ltda.
Tribunal de Justiça de Santa Catarina (Court of Appeal Santa Catarina)
Brazil, 09 May 2019 – 0305428-39.2014.8.24.0038, CISG-online 5290
Applied Brazilian procedural law to allocate the burden of proof
  • Treating the burden of proof as a matter governed by the CISG
Czech Republic
Rheinland Versicherungen v. Atlarex s.r.l.
Tribunale di Vigevano (District Court Vigevano)
Italy, 12 July 2000 – 405, CISG-online 493
Czech Republic
ALAKart Kft. v. Pizzul S.r.l.
Tribunale di Trieste (District Court Trieste)
Italy, 17 June 2019 – 2640/2016, CISG-online 5184

Held that the burden of proof is a matter governed but not expressly settled in the Sales Convention (apart from Art. 79(1) CISG), but that the allocation of the burden of proof can be settled in conformity with general principles underlying the Convention (Art. 7(2) CISG) which result in the rule "ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat" (the party who claims a right should prove the circumstances on which her claim is based)



Birgit Reimers-Zocher, Beweislastfragen im Haager und Wiener Kaufrecht, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang (1995) [– in German]
Stefan Kröll, Larry DiMatteo, Ulrich G. Schroeter, André Janssen & Camilla Baasch Andersen, 'Cost and Burden of Proof under the CISG – A Discussion amongst Experts', 20 International Trade and Business Law Review (ITBLR) (2017), 203–244 [– in English]  
Clemens Antweiler, Beweislastverteilung im UN-Kaufrecht - Insbesondere bei Vertragsverletzungen des Verkäufers, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang (1995) [– in German]
Franco Ferrari, 'Burden of proof under the CISG', Review of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sales of Goods (Rev. CISG) (2000), 1–10 [– in English]
Franco Ferrari, 'Burden of Proof under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods', Revue de Droit des Affaires Internationales/International Business Law Journal (RDAI/IBLJ) (2000), 665–670 [– in English]
Thomas Koller & Marc André Mauerhofer, 'Das Beweismass im UN-Kaufrecht (CISG)', in: Andrea Büchler & Markus Müller-Chen (eds.), Private Law: national – global – comparative, Festschrift für Ingeborg Schwenzer zum 60. Geburtstag, Berne: Stämpfli (2011), 963–980 [– in German]  
Tobias Malte Müller, 'Die Beweislastverteilung im UN-Kaufrecht im Spiegel der aktuellen weltweiten Rechtsprechung', Recht der Internationalen Wirtschaft (RIW) (2007), 673–681 [– in German]
Alfredo Ferrante, 'Burden of Proof and Lack of Conformity under the CISG from the Italian Law Perspective', in: Francesca Benatti, Sergio García Long & Filippo Viglione (eds.), The Transnational Sales Contract – 40 years influence of the CISG on national jurisdictions, Milano: Wolters Kluwer & CEDAM (2022), 177–198 [– in English]